You might encounter several errors and issues when installing Service Pack on your Windows Vista-based computer. When you try to install Windows Vista Service Pack 1 (SP1) or Service Pack 2 (SP2), the operation can fail with an 0XC0190036 error followed by an error code and a file name. The file is a system file. Windows fails to boot after you receive this error.
Error 0XC0190036 appears because of the file that service pack targets to patch is corrupted. This could occur if the hard disk file system is inconsistent or automatic defragmentation has corrupted the system file(s).
To prevent this error from occurring, you should run chkdsk /f repair command for fixing any disk corruption issues and disable all disk defragmentation utilities before trying to apply service pack. Since the system file(s) are corrupted, you need to replace it with a fresh copy. Following solutions can help you in this regard:
Boot your computer using Windows Vista installation disk and run sfc/ scannow to check for corrupted system files and/or execute chkdsk command
If this doesn't help, you can repair the Windows installation or run startup repair
As the last resort, you should opt for reinstalling Windows Vista that will replace all the system files